当前位置:首页 > 对外交流> 国际交流

国际交流

澳洲基础教育考察报告

Investigation report on basic education of Australia

来源:本站原创 作者:严济良 发布时间:2014年11月11日 点击数: [添加收藏]

2013119日至22日,我们13位来自江苏各地的中小学校长、副校长,在省教育国际交流服务中心丁安宁副主任的率领下赴澳洲进行教育考察与研习。在组织方的精心安排下,我们团顺利完成了高密度的公务考察与学习活动:参加维州—江苏校长论坛、昆士兰教育研讨会,考察20所中小学、4所大学。通过报告访谈、参观校园、走进课堂等形式,基本了解到澳洲中小学校的管理与教学,也产生了一些思考与启发。现将活动情况总结汇报如下。

From November 9 to 22, 2013, 13 of us primary and middle school principals and vice principals from all over Jiangsu Province, led by Ding Anning, deputy director of Jiangsu Education Services for International Exchange (JESIE), visited Australia, carrying on our education investigation and study. Due to careful arrangement and organization, our group  successfully completed our mission of highly dense official inspection and learning activities like Victoria-Jiangsu Forum For Principals, Queensland Education seminars, investigations of 20 schools and 4 universities. Through interviews and campus visits, watching classroom teaching, we eventually had some basic understanding of the management and teaching in primary and secondary schools in Australia, set ourselves thinking and got some inspiration. The following is the summarized report of activities.

一、论坛与研讨会,求真务实

1. Pragmatic forums and seminars

根据安排,在墨尔本举行校长论坛,在昆士兰召开研讨会。

According to the arrangement, the forum for principals was held in Melbourne, a seminar held in Queensland.

1112上午,在皇家墨尔本理工大学举行维州—江苏校长论坛,主题是“推进国际友好交流,注重实效与可持续发展”。维州教育部长代表Alan Murphy 先生主持论坛,并作“维州教育概况以及学校国际化教育发展方向”的主题发言;苏教国际丁安宁副主任致词、介绍江苏概况;维州校长代表和江苏校长代表分别做“学校国际化教育进程”“学校国际交流的实践与思考”的主题发言。随后,双方四十多位校长代表被分成七个小组进行讨论。茶歇后,中方代表团团长做论坛小结与答谢。

yx2

 

yx1

On the morning of November 12th, Victoria-Jiangsu Forum For Principals was held at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology with its theme "Promoting international friendly exchanges and focusing on actual effect and sustainable development". Alan Murphy, a representative of Education Ministers of Victoria, presided over the Forum and delivered a keynote speech entitled " Recent education situation in Victoria and the direction in which international education develops". Following it, Ding Anning, deputy director of the Provincial Education International Exchange Service Center introduced the general situation of Jiangsu. Representatives of both Victorian principals and Jiangsu principals  talked respectively on "Internationalization process of school education" and "Practice and thinking on international communications between schools". Subsequently, more than forty principal delegates from the two sides were divided into seven groups and had a discussion. After the tea break, head of the Chinese delegation forum made a brief summary and acknowledgment.

1119上午,在Yeronga State High School (优龙港中学)举行昆士兰—江苏教育研讨会。昆士兰教育部的部长代表Jo House女士致辞;江苏校长代表团团长做“江苏教育需要更多国际合作”的主题演讲,江苏省丹阳中学王永祥副校长介绍了教育国际化的实践;最后,优龙港中学Terry Heath 校长介绍了昆士兰教育的概况和他们学校教育国际化进程。会后中澳校长代表共享优龙港中学准备的传统澳洲烧烤,据Terry Heath 校长介绍这是接待最亲密(尊贵)客人的方式,对此我们记忆犹新,心生谢意。

On the morning of November 19th, Queensland-Jiangsu education seminar was held at Yeronga State High School. Ms. Jo House, on behalf of ministers of Queensland Education Department, gave a speech. Afterwards, two other speeches were made, one of which had the theme "Jiangsu education needs more international cooperation" by President of Jiangsu Delegation and the other by Wang Yongxiang, Vice president of Danyang High School of Jiangsu province, in which he introduced the practice of education internationalization. In the end, Terry Heath, principal of Yeronga State High School introduced the general situation of Queensland education and the process of education internationalization of their school. After the seminar, Sino-Australian principals enjoyed traditional Australian barbecue in Yeronga State High School. This, according to Terry Heath, is the most intimate way to receive most honoured guests. It is still fresh in our mind and we can never show enough gratitude.

综合两场研讨,双方就中小学国际教育合作中焦点问题达成一些共识:一个成功的国际合作伙伴关系的建立,需要双方合作目的明确,合作意愿真诚;当前国际合作的伙伴关系会面临师资不足、经济拮据、时间冲突等问题挑战,需要我们积极面对与协调,积极争取政府与民间支持;简单具体的合作项目有助于姐妹学校的健康发展,而过程中经常协商、不断优化合作方略可以确保姐妹学校关系的健康持久的发展。

With the forum and the seminar, both sides reached some consensus on the top problems over the international education cooperation between elementary and middle schools. The establishment of a successful international partnership needs a clear purpose and faithful sincerity for the cooperation. Currently, international cooperation partnership will have to face challenges like shortage of teachers, economic constraints, conflicts of finding an appropriate time. Besides seeking government as well as folk supports, both sides need to face challenges actively and coordinate with each other. Specific simple cooperation projects benefit healthy development of sister schools while  constant negotiations and optimizing strategy during the process can ensure sustainable development of healthy sister school relations.

二、考察中小学校,深入细致

2. Meticulous and further investigation of two primary and secondary schools

我们团13位校长分成3个小组分头考察学校。在墨尔本、昆士兰,都是每个小组考察2-3所学校,最后集中考察一所私立学校。概括总结,考察印象最深的有以下几点。

13 principals of us went to investigate schools in 3 separate groups. In Melbourne and Queensland, each group went to 2 to 3 schools and finally to a private school. The most impressive, In summary, are as follows.

(一)关于学校性质

(1) On the quality of schools

在澳洲,私立学校、教会学校的办学条件和教育质量普遍好于公立学校,没有一定经济基础的家庭的孩子是上不了收费较高的私立精英学校的。而我国基础教育中最优质的学校(尤其是高中),绝大多数是公办学校,低收入家庭的孩子只要成绩优异,不仅可以在这些学校享有同等受教育的机会,而且还可享受政府、学校助学金。

In Australia, running conditions and qualities of private schools and church schools are generally better than public schools. Children without certain economic support can hardly go to elite private schools due to their high fees. Differently in China, schools of the best quality, especially high schools, the vast majority of which are public ones, exist in basic education. In these schools, children from low-income families as long as they make outstanding academic achievements, can not only enjoy equal educational opportunities, but also enjoy grants from the government and schools.

(二)关于学校管理

(2) On school management

质量管理。“质量是学校的生命线”是中外校长的共同的认识和压力。澳洲同行的压力更为显现,政府按学生数给经费,当学校质量下降,没有生源时,政府就撤换校长或撤并学校。社会衡量学校质量的重要标准之一就是各州对三、五、七、九这四个年级进行的统考成绩排名;对于高中来说,有多少比例的学生考上什么样的大学,是衡量质量的重要标杆。在我国大多数省市为了避免校际之间开展片面追求升学率的恶性竞争,取消了政府掌控的高考信息的公开发布,但这种竞争只是由有形转化为无形,实际操作中校长、学校对办学质量的追求丝毫也不敢放松。

Quality management. "Quality, lifeline of schools" is the common understanding and the pressure of both Chinese and foreign principals. Peer pressure of Australia is more apparent. Money is distributed according to the number of students by the government. When the quality of a school declines, no students come and the government replaces the principal or merges it with another. The score ranking of state examinations arranged in grades three, five, seven and nine is the important standard of evaluating the quality of a school. For high schools, the important standard of quality evaluation is the proportion of students admitted to certain kinds of Universities. However, in China, in order to avoid malignant competition of one-sided pursuit of graduation rates among schools, most provinces have cancelled the public information release of college entrance examinations, which was under government’s control in the past. The competition is transformed from visible to invisible. During the operation of running schools, actually, no principals dare to relax a bit in the pursuit of the quality.

教师负荷。在澳洲,教师的工作负荷普遍较重。例如,澳洲一所中学,每周20节课,全职教师每人每周15节课,另有3节备课时间,算下来在校机动时间只有2节。教师的管理也远比我们想像的严格。

The load on teachers. In Australia, teachers generally bear heavier work load. For example, in an Australian secondary school, a full-time teacher has 20 classes per week, 15 periods for teaching, 3 periods for preparation, and only 2 periods for maneuver. Strict The management of teachers is far stricter than we imagine.

学生管理。在澳洲,学校对学生的管理十分讲究方法,家长也比较配合。在一所中学,我们了解到学生电脑是学校配发的,每人一台,这款电脑是IBM公司根据澳洲教育部的要求设计的,功能上满足学习要求,管理上能实现在校期间可监控、提醒、锁定功能,每生每年只需花200多澳元的租金。

The management of students. In Australia, school management of students focuses particularly on the method, with parents’ cooperation. In a middle school, we learnt that computers, one per student, are allotted by the school. The designing made by the IBM company meet the requirements of the Australian Ministry of education with the function aiding learning and in management, they can be monitored, reminded and even locked during the period of school and a student only needs to pay a rent of a bit more than 200 Australian dollars per year.

(三)关于课程体系

(3) On the curriculum system

参观中我们发现,澳洲学校的课程设置非常丰富,校本课程满足学生兴趣爱好与发展需要,且中学的选修课程与大学的专业之间联系也比较紧密。Templestowe College为了让学生饶有兴趣的学习生物,学校兴建了动物园,兴趣课上学生与羊、蛇、变色龙、蛙等几十种动物亲密接触,自然和谐。Box  Hill  High  School 创意课程很有特色,学生正在自行设计制作各种电子机械产品,学习应用3G打印技术,用回收废弃物制作技术作品等课程,选修这些课的学生志愿将来从事相应行业的工程师。

During the visit, we found that Australian schools have very rich curriculum, with school-based curriculum meeting the interests of students as well as the need of their development. Moreover, elective courses and professional contacts are relatively close between colleges and high schools. In order to make students interested in learning biology, Templestowe College has built a zoo, where students, naturally and harmoniously, can have close contacts with sheep, snakes, chameleons, frogs and dozens of other animals. Creative courses in Box Hill High School are very distinctive. Students are take elective courses like designing and manufacturing a variety of electronic and mechanical products, learning the application of 3G printing technology and the production of technology works via recycling waste materials. Students who take these courses volunteer to engage themselves in the corresponding industry engineer in the future.

相比之下,我省高中必修学科多、高考科目多,但真正为满足学生兴趣爱好、面向未来职业选修的学科却少;校本选修大多数学校不想开或没有能力开。而且,高中所学内容知识、理论居多,远离生活,与学生未来职业取向脱节,从而导致学而无味,甚至学而无用,培养不了实践能力、想象能力与创新能力。

In contrast, high schools in our province have more required subjects and most of them are for college entrance examinations, but have fewer elective subjects to meet the interests of students and the requirements of future professions. Most schools don't want to open or do not have the ability to open school-based elective subjects. In addition, knowledge for learning in high schools is rich in theory but far away from life and future career orientation. As a result, it is tasteless and even useless to learn and hard to foster abilities in practice, imagination and innovation.

(四)关于物尽其用

(4) On turning material resources to good account

在发达国家,“物尽其用”是学校的设施与装备购置的普遍原则。在一所中学实验课上,我们看到学生使用的显微镜,就跟玩具没两样。在另一所中学,校长带我们参观了由构件组装起来的功能齐全的简易教室;听说,学校不需要时,教育局还可拆解搬移到其它需要的学校。

In developed countries, "turning material resources to good account" is the general principle of purchasing school facilities and equipment. In an experimental class of a middle school, we saw students using the microscope just like playing with toys. In another school, the headmaster gave us a tour of simple classroom assembled with components for multi-functions. It is said that if the school does not require it, the Education Bureau can have it disassembled and moved to other schools that need it.

三、回归教育本旨,知行合一

3. Returning to the original aim of education for the unity of knowing and doing

通过此次考察,我们进一步明确,提高国民素质、促进学生的全面发展是我们基础教育的根本目标。我们在培养学生创新精神、实践能力和社会责任感方面应该学习和借鉴(教育)发达国家的经验与做法。身为校长,我们要追求教育现代化的本质——促进人的现代化,提升人的主体性,着力培养学生的积极性、自主性、创造性,并“将理念成为行动,让行动变成习惯”。优化学校管理,凸显服务育人宗旨;整合学校人力、财力、物力,服务于学生自主发展。

From this investigation, we are further clarified that improving national quality and promoting the all-round development of students are the basic goals of our basic education. We should learn and refer to  experience (in education) and practice from developed countries while training our students' innovative spirit and abilities of practice and social responsibility. As principals, we want to pursue the modernization of education essence, that is, to promote the modernization of people and to improve people's subjectivity. We should focus ourselves on the cultivation of initiative, independence, creativity of students and on "turning ideas into action and making action into a habit". We should also optimize our school management, highlight the service purpose of education and integrate human resources, financial resources and material resources to serve independent development for all the students.

江苏中小学建立国家、地方和学校三级课程体系任重道远。校长应担当起有效统筹的责任,创建基于学生全面而有个性发展、具有本校特色的学校课程体系,为学生提供综合实践活动等多种形态的课程,开设适应学生发展需要的选修课,为学生提供丰富多样的学习资源。优化教育方法,废除基于知识学习的灌输式,减少教师支配课堂的讲授式,倡导基于问题解决的探究式,增加学生自主合作的讨论式。

We still have a long way to go in Jiangsu primary schools to establish the three-level curriculum system of national, local and school. Principals shall bear the responsibility of creating effective planning, setting school curriculum system with school features for students’ comprehensive and personality development so that students can be provided with comprehensive practical activities and other forms of courses, open elective courses so that students’ needs of adapting to the development can be satisfied, and provide abundant learning resources for students. Besides, we shall optimize the educational methods, abolish  cramming knowledge under the domination of teachers lectures, advocate inquiry based on problem solving and increase students' Autonomous Cooperation discussion.

通过本次考察,我们更深切地认识到“推进国际友好学校交流,注重实效与可持续发展”的重要性。同时也感到,我们需要奉献更多智慧、创新更多形式,并借助苏教国际这个广阔的教育服务平台,增加教师、行政管理者、学生参与到国际交流中的机会,与国际友好学校开展有效交流合作,开阔教育视野。

From the investigation, we have understood deeply the importance of “promoting international friendship communications between schools  and focusing on pragmatic and sustainable development”. At the same time, we also feel that we shall dedicate more wisdom, create more innovative forms, and increase opportunities for teachers, administrators, and students to participate in the international exchange with the help of this broad education service platform by Jiangsu Education International Exchange Service Center to carry out effective exchanges and cooperations with the international sister schools and open wide views of education.

最后,衷心感谢江苏省教育厅、苏教国际精心组织本次活动。希望江苏省教育厅能一如既往,组织和支持中小学校长、老师赴国外交流学习,促进江苏教育更好更快地实现教育现代化。

        Finally, we are very grateful to the Education Department of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Education International Exchange Service Center for the wonderful organization of this activity. We hope that the Education Department of Jiangsu province can organize and support principals and teachers to go abroad and learn from foreign exchanges, and eventually better and faster promote the realization of Jiangsu education modernization.



 

[ 打印文章 ]